This is the documentation for a “blender beginners course”, that was tought by videoconference to participants from Germany, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Lithuania.
Sunday 24.1.2021 18:00-21:00h
Sunday 31.1.2021 18:00-21:00h
Sunday 07.2.2021 18:00-21:00h
Sunday 14.2.2021 18:00-21:00h
Blender is a polygonal modeler and much more.
“Swiss Army-Knife of multimedia”
Blender is a team with Gimp, Inkscape and Krita
With blender you can do:
Blender has a few features that are slightly different from most other programs, but you will soon learn to use and love them.
Blender reacts differently to shortcuts depending on where your mouse-cursor is positioned at the moment of execution of the Shortcut. If you execute a shortcut with your mouse in the “Buttons-Window”, it will react differently than with your mouse in the “3D-View-Window”. It also makes a difference if you are in “Object-Mode” or “Edit-Mode”. Whenever a shortcut is not doing what you expect, double-check if your mouse is in the right window and mode!
Blender is extremely fast if you use shortcuts. They work a bit different than in other programs, because in addition to shortcuts where you press a bunch of keys at the same time (for example File → Save: Ctrl+ S) you can use shortcuts sequencially (e.g. “Scale in local z-direction by 2”: S ZZ 2 Enter).
You will need a mouse for working properly with blender!
Get a standard three-button-mouse! Apple Magic-Mouse not recommended. “Space-mouse” works!
Many shortcuts make a little pop-up window appear at your mouse-position. Don’t move your mouse too much, if not the pop-up will dissapear. (e.g. CMD+N asks for confirmation to reload startup file).
Edit → Preferences → Input → Emulate Numpad (if you use a keyboard without Numpad)
Edit → Preferences → Navigation → Zoom to Mouse
Edit → Preferences → Keymap → frame selected
Zoom: rotate mousewheel
Orbit: press mousewheel and move mouse
Pan: press ⇧ + mousewheel and move mouse
Windows (split, change…):
Move mouse on the edge between windows until it changes to a cross:
drag down/sideway to split the window
drag between two windows to join them (or rightclick → join areas)
rightclick on header to remove header or flip to bottom/top
⇧ LMB drag corner → separate window
Strg LMB drag → swap window
Ctrl + page ⇧/page ⇩ cycle workspaces
Strg + Space maximise area (pay attention to which area your cursor is in!)
Importance of Mouse Position!
Change views with View → Viewpoint → Top/Front/Right,
or quicker with shortcuts:
1 Front View
3 Right View
7 Top View
5 Toggle Perspective/Orthographic
0 Camera View
⇧ + rightclick to move 3D-Cursor
⇧ + S Cursor to origin
delete cube: Delete/X
⇧ + A Add Mesh monkey
rightclick on selected object → shade smooth/flat
object data properties → Normals → autosmooth
make a tower with Cube cylinder, cone, torus, uv-sphere
After entering in one of the transformations (G/R/S) you can use the X, Y, and Z keys to limit the transform in one of the global directions.
Hitting X, Y, or Z twice will transform in local coordinates.
You can also enter numerical values during the transformation. Don’t forget to hit ENTER once you are finished.
(e.g. Scale by 2.5 in local Z-Direction: S, Z, Z, 2, ., 5, ENTER)
⭾ Toggle Edit-Mode/Object-Mode
In edit-mode you can switch between Vertex/Edge/Face Select with the buttons on top:
Select a face and extrude: E Extrude
If you want to make a hole in a face, you hit E,
Rightclick or Esc to Chancel
(There will be an invisible “double” face)
Scale it down with S
and extrude inwards with E
You can extrude Vertices → Edge(s),
Edge(s) → Face(s),
and Face(s) → Volume(s)
If you select 3 or more Vertices, you can create a new face: F Make Face
If you apply a “Subdivision Surface” modifier, everythings gets smoothed out:
N opens/collapses the “Numeric Panel”
T opens/collapses the “Tool Panel”
W to cycle selection mode
explanation why to prefer G to tweak
Here are some more frequently used shortcuts:
Ctrl + R Cut Face Loop
K Knife Cut
x or BackspaceDelete
Alt + H Unhide
B Border Select
C Circle select (try rotating the mouse wheel once you see the circle)
Ctrl+Right mouse button Area select
O Toggle Proportional Edit (try rotating the mouse wheel once you see the circle)
If you Alt rightclick on an edge/face, it will select the edge-/face-loop.
Edge → Subdivide
Face → Extrude individual face
Transform Pivot Point Individual origins:
Change object size in Transform panel
S , ⇧ + Z, scale in all directions but Z
numerically positioning the 3D cursor
Object origin (moving in object mode vs edit mode)
example table legs
position leg with 3D Cursor
Position legs with snap Shift + ⭾ Unhide
change length with object origin changed
change length with transformation center 3d cursor
make table in 2 ways: objects / extrude
+ for expanding selection
x dissolve edges
remove doubles (Mesh → merge → by distance)
Shift + S Cursor to Selected
Select → Select All by Trait → Non Manifold, will highlight vertices where the volume is “open”
P separate selection, will make a separate part from the selected/loose vertices.
F3 menu, allows you to search for commands by name
#/^ toggle local view
A Select All
Alt+A / AA Deselect Everything
Ctrl + J Join Meshes
Saving, in the save menue you can you the +-key to increment a number in the filename.
In the Modifier Properties you can find the Boolean-Modifier that allows you to add/substract/intersect models.
select by type → non manifold
L Select linked
Alt+S Scale Along Normals (shrinking or fattening the mesh)
Select → Select all by trait → Non manifold
F Change brush size
⇧ + F Change Strength
Change camera angle
Ctrl + Alt + 0 Move camera to current view
N → View → View lock → Camera to View
Change diffuse color
Change Viewport shading
change to spotlight
Three point lighting
In Eevee there is no Shadow catcher, but you can [https://artisticrender.com/how-to-create-a-shadow-catcher-with-eevee-in-blender/](build one with nodes).
How to show normals
In “Edit Mode” go to “Overlays” → “Normals” and check Vertex, Vertex per face or face normals.
How to recalculate/flip normals?
In “Edit Mode” go to Mesh → Normals → Flip/Recalculate outside
Ctrl + E Mark Seam
Papermodel plugin: https://github.com/addam/Export-Paper-Model-from-Blender
“packing” blend files
rendering with transparent background
Ctrl + E Mark seam
Ctrl + N New File → General
Go to Physics Properties and select Fluid:
With the cube selected, choose “domain”
Choose “domain type” liquid:
On the very bottom choose “Format Volumes” OpenVDB → Uni Cache:
Add an Icosphere: Shift + A Mesh → Ico Sphere
Scale it down by 0.3 and move it up a bit:
S 0.3 Enter
G Z 0.5
With the sphere selected go to fluids again:
This time select flow instead of domain:
In flow type select “liquid”:
Select the cube and switch back to OpenVDB:
Go to the beginning:
Hit the Spacebar or the play icon:
For the domain select Mesh and play from the beginning:
Hide the Icosphere H
You should be seeing something like this:
If you want (and if you have a good computer) increase the resolution:
Go to “Object → Quick Effects → Quick Smoke”